Optimization coach

Indoor XPO Trainer Push Sled Highlights

Here's the primary cause of my ultra functional pain free body and mind.
https://phys.org/.../2021-04-humans-apex-predators....

The evolution of the human trophic level during the Pleistocene
Miki Ben-Dor,Raphael Sirtoli,Ran Barkai
First published: 05 March 2021 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24247Citations: 3
SECTIONSPDFPDFTOOLS SHARE
Abstract
The human trophic level (HTL) during the Pleistocene and its degree of variability serve, explicitly or tacitly, as the basis of many explanations for human evolution, behavior, and culture. Previous attempts to reconstruct the HTL have relied heavily on an analogy with recent hunter-gatherer groups' diets. In addition to technological differences, recent findings of substantial ecological differences between the Pleistocene and the Anthropocene cast doubt regarding that analogy's validity. Surprisingly little systematic evolution-guided evidence served to reconstruct HTL. Here, we reconstruct the HTL during the Pleistocene by reviewing evidence for the impact of the HTL on the biological, ecological, and behavioral systems derived from various existing studies. We adapt a paleobiological and paleoecological approach, including evidence from human physiology and genetics, archaeology, paleontology, and zoology, and identified 25 sources of evidence in total. The evidence shows that the trophic level of the Homo lineage that most probably led to modern humans evolved from a low base to a high, carnivorous position during the Pleistocene, beginning with Homo habilis and peaking in Homo erectus. A reversal of that trend appears in the Upper Paleolithic, strengthening in the Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic and Neolithic, and culminating with the advent of agriculture. We conclude that it is possible to reach a credible reconstruction of the HTL without relying on a simple analogy with recent hunter-gatherers' diets. The memory of an adaptation to a trophic level that is embedded in modern humans' biology in the form of genetics, metabolism, and morphology is a fruitful line of investigation of past HTLs, whose potential we have only started to explore.

1 INTRODUCTION
“The first task of the prehistorian must be to decide which trophic level the population he is studying occupied” (Wilkinson, 2014, p. 544).

Despite Wilkinson's advice, few researchers referred to past human food consumption in terms of a “trophic level.” This tendency may stem from the perception of humans as the ultimate omnivore, generalist, flexible creatures, capable of adapting their trophic level at short notice to meet variable local ecological conditions. Some even consider acquiring these capabilities as the core of human evolution, including increased brain size (Potts, 1998; R. W. Wrangham et al., 1999).

By seeking a “trophic level,” we examine the possibility that unlike 20th-century hunter-gatherers (HG), Paleolithic humans may not have been as flexible in the selection of plant or animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene as one would infer from an examination of the ethnographic record.

Perception of humans' dietary flexibility regarding plant and animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene (2,580,000–11,700 years ago) receives much support from analogy with 20th century HG's varied diets. The difference in preservation potential between plants and animals in archaeological assemblages has led to the wide use of ethnography in the reconstruction of Paleolithic diets (Cordain et al., 2000; Crittenden & Schnorr, 2017; Eaton & Konner, 1985; Konner & Eaton, 2010; Kuipers et al., 2012; Kuipers et al., 2010; Lee, 1968; F. W. Marlowe, 2005; Stahl et al., 1984; Ströhle & Hahn, 2011). All of the reconstructions present a picture of HG as flexible in their trophic level, depending largely on local ecologies. However, the varied diets of 20th century HG may result from post-Paleolithic technological and physiological adaptations to Anthropocene ecological conditions that are non-analogous to the conditions that humans experienced during most of the Pleistocene. In fact, with a markedly lower abundance of megafauna and with technological features like the use of dogs, bows and arrows, iron, and contact with neighboring herders and farmers, one would expect 20th century HG to be more analogous in terms of dietary patterns to their probable ancestors of the terminal and post-Paleolithic humans rather than to Lower, Middle and even Early Upper Paleolithic humans (Ben-Dor & Barkai, 2020a; Faith et al., 2019).

June 29, 2022, MORNING PUSH SCOOTER RIDE IN NO UGLY POTATO SAC OUTFIT. Suck it wimps. LOL.

Here's the primary cause of my ultra functional pain free body and mind.
https://phys.org/.../2021-04-humans-apex-predators....

The evolution of the human trophic level during the Pleistocene
Miki Ben-Dor,Raphael Sirtoli,Ran Barkai
First published: 05 March 2021 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24247Citations: 3
SECTIONSPDFPDFTOOLS SHARE
Abstract
The human trophic level (HTL) during the Pleistocene and its degree of variability serve, explicitly or tacitly, as the basis of many explanations for human evolution, behavior, and culture. Previous attempts to reconstruct the HTL have relied heavily on an analogy with recent hunter-gatherer groups' diets. In addition to technological differences, recent findings of substantial ecological differences between the Pleistocene and the Anthropocene cast doubt regarding that analogy's validity. Surprisingly little systematic evolution-guided evidence served to reconstruct HTL. Here, we reconstruct the HTL during the Pleistocene by reviewing evidence for the impact of the HTL on the biological, ecological, and behavioral systems derived from various existing studies. We adapt a paleobiological and paleoecological approach, including evidence from human physiology and genetics, archaeology, paleontology, and zoology, and identified 25 sources of evidence in total. The evidence shows that the trophic level of the Homo lineage that most probably led to modern humans evolved from a low base to a high, carnivorous position during the Pleistocene, beginning with Homo habilis and peaking in Homo erectus. A reversal of that trend appears in the Upper Paleolithic, strengthening in the Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic and Neolithic, and culminating with the advent of agriculture. We conclude that it is possible to reach a credible reconstruction of the HTL without relying on a simple analogy with recent hunter-gatherers' diets. The memory of an adaptation to a trophic level that is embedded in modern humans' biology in the form of genetics, metabolism, and morphology is a fruitful line of investigation of past HTLs, whose potential we have only started to explore.

1 INTRODUCTION
“The first task of the prehistorian must be to decide which trophic level the population he is studying occupied” (Wilkinson, 2014, p. 544).

Despite Wilkinson's advice, few researchers referred to past human food consumption in terms of a “trophic level.” This tendency may stem from the perception of humans as the ultimate omnivore, generalist, flexible creatures, capable of adapting their trophic level at short notice to meet variable local ecological conditions. Some even consider acquiring these capabilities as the core of human evolution, including increased brain size (Potts, 1998; R. W. Wrangham et al., 1999).

By seeking a “trophic level,” we examine the possibility that unlike 20th-century hunter-gatherers (HG), Paleolithic humans may not have been as flexible in the selection of plant or animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene as one would infer from an examination of the ethnographic record.

Perception of humans' dietary flexibility regarding plant and animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene (2,580,000–11,700 years ago) receives much support from analogy with 20th century HG's varied diets. The difference in preservation potential between plants and animals in archaeological assemblages has led to the wide use of ethnography in the reconstruction of Paleolithic diets (Cordain et al., 2000; Crittenden & Schnorr, 2017; Eaton & Konner, 1985; Konner & Eaton, 2010; Kuipers et al., 2012; Kuipers et al., 2010; Lee, 1968; F. W. Marlowe, 2005; Stahl et al., 1984; Ströhle & Hahn, 2011). All of the reconstructions present a picture of HG as flexible in their trophic level, depending largely on local ecologies. However, the varied diets of 20th century HG may result from post-Paleolithic technological and physiological adaptations to Anthropocene ecological conditions that are non-analogous to the conditions that humans experienced during most of the Pleistocene. In fact, with a markedly lower abundance of megafauna and with technological features like the use of dogs, bows and arrows, iron, and contact with neighboring herders and farmers, one would expect 20th century HG to be more analogous in terms of dietary patterns to their probable ancestors of the terminal and post-Paleolithic humans rather than to Lower, Middle and even Early Upper Paleolithic humans (Ben-Dor & Barkai, 2020a; Faith et al., 2019).

June 19 Monkeying powerack in style.

Here's the primary cause of my ultra functional pain free body and mind.
https://phys.org/.../2021-04-humans-apex-predators....

The evolution of the human trophic level during the Pleistocene
Miki Ben-Dor,Raphael Sirtoli,Ran Barkai
First published: 05 March 2021 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24247Citations: 3
SECTIONSPDFPDFTOOLS SHARE
Abstract
The human trophic level (HTL) during the Pleistocene and its degree of variability serve, explicitly or tacitly, as the basis of many explanations for human evolution, behavior, and culture. Previous attempts to reconstruct the HTL have relied heavily on an analogy with recent hunter-gatherer groups' diets. In addition to technological differences, recent findings of substantial ecological differences between the Pleistocene and the Anthropocene cast doubt regarding that analogy's validity. Surprisingly little systematic evolution-guided evidence served to reconstruct HTL. Here, we reconstruct the HTL during the Pleistocene by reviewing evidence for the impact of the HTL on the biological, ecological, and behavioral systems derived from various existing studies. We adapt a paleobiological and paleoecological approach, including evidence from human physiology and genetics, archaeology, paleontology, and zoology, and identified 25 sources of evidence in total. The evidence shows that the trophic level of the Homo lineage that most probably led to modern humans evolved from a low base to a high, carnivorous position during the Pleistocene, beginning with Homo habilis and peaking in Homo erectus. A reversal of that trend appears in the Upper Paleolithic, strengthening in the Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic and Neolithic, and culminating with the advent of agriculture. We conclude that it is possible to reach a credible reconstruction of the HTL without relying on a simple analogy with recent hunter-gatherers' diets. The memory of an adaptation to a trophic level that is embedded in modern humans' biology in the form of genetics, metabolism, and morphology is a fruitful line of investigation of past HTLs, whose potential we have only started to explore.

1 INTRODUCTION
“The first task of the prehistorian must be to decide which trophic level the population he is studying occupied” (Wilkinson, 2014, p. 544).

Despite Wilkinson's advice, few researchers referred to past human food consumption in terms of a “trophic level.” This tendency may stem from the perception of humans as the ultimate omnivore, generalist, flexible creatures, capable of adapting their trophic level at short notice to meet variable local ecological conditions. Some even consider acquiring these capabilities as the core of human evolution, including increased brain size (Potts, 1998; R. W. Wrangham et al., 1999).

By seeking a “trophic level,” we examine the possibility that unlike 20th-century hunter-gatherers (HG), Paleolithic humans may not have been as flexible in the selection of plant or animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene as one would infer from an examination of the ethnographic record.

Perception of humans' dietary flexibility regarding plant and animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene (2,580,000–11,700 years ago) receives much support from analogy with 20th century HG's varied diets. The difference in preservation potential between plants and animals in archaeological assemblages has led to the wide use of ethnography in the reconstruction of Paleolithic diets (Cordain et al., 2000; Crittenden & Schnorr, 2017; Eaton & Konner, 1985; Konner & Eaton, 2010; Kuipers et al., 2012; Kuipers et al., 2010; Lee, 1968; F. W. Marlowe, 2005; Stahl et al., 1984; Ströhle & Hahn, 2011). All of the reconstructions present a picture of HG as flexible in their trophic level, depending largely on local ecologies. However, the varied diets of 20th century HG may result from post-Paleolithic technological and physiological adaptations to Anthropocene ecological conditions that are non-analogous to the conditions that humans experienced during most of the Pleistocene. In fact, with a markedly lower abundance of megafauna and with technological features like the use of dogs, bows and arrows, iron, and contact with neighboring herders and farmers, one would expect 20th century HG to be more analogous in terms of dietary patterns to their probable ancestors of the terminal and post-Paleolithic humans rather than to Lower, Middle and even Early Upper Paleolithic humans (Ben-Dor & Barkai, 2020a; Faith et al., 2019).

June 19 Monkeying my powerack highlights.

Here's the primary cause of my ultra functional pain free body and mind.
https://phys.org/.../2021-04-humans-apex-predators....

The evolution of the human trophic level during the Pleistocene
Miki Ben-Dor,Raphael Sirtoli,Ran Barkai
First published: 05 March 2021 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24247Citations: 3
SECTIONSPDFPDFTOOLS SHARE
Abstract
The human trophic level (HTL) during the Pleistocene and its degree of variability serve, explicitly or tacitly, as the basis of many explanations for human evolution, behavior, and culture. Previous attempts to reconstruct the HTL have relied heavily on an analogy with recent hunter-gatherer groups' diets. In addition to technological differences, recent findings of substantial ecological differences between the Pleistocene and the Anthropocene cast doubt regarding that analogy's validity. Surprisingly little systematic evolution-guided evidence served to reconstruct HTL. Here, we reconstruct the HTL during the Pleistocene by reviewing evidence for the impact of the HTL on the biological, ecological, and behavioral systems derived from various existing studies. We adapt a paleobiological and paleoecological approach, including evidence from human physiology and genetics, archaeology, paleontology, and zoology, and identified 25 sources of evidence in total. The evidence shows that the trophic level of the Homo lineage that most probably led to modern humans evolved from a low base to a high, carnivorous position during the Pleistocene, beginning with Homo habilis and peaking in Homo erectus. A reversal of that trend appears in the Upper Paleolithic, strengthening in the Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic and Neolithic, and culminating with the advent of agriculture. We conclude that it is possible to reach a credible reconstruction of the HTL without relying on a simple analogy with recent hunter-gatherers' diets. The memory of an adaptation to a trophic level that is embedded in modern humans' biology in the form of genetics, metabolism, and morphology is a fruitful line of investigation of past HTLs, whose potential we have only started to explore.

1 INTRODUCTION
“The first task of the prehistorian must be to decide which trophic level the population he is studying occupied” (Wilkinson, 2014, p. 544).

Despite Wilkinson's advice, few researchers referred to past human food consumption in terms of a “trophic level.” This tendency may stem from the perception of humans as the ultimate omnivore, generalist, flexible creatures, capable of adapting their trophic level at short notice to meet variable local ecological conditions. Some even consider acquiring these capabilities as the core of human evolution, including increased brain size (Potts, 1998; R. W. Wrangham et al., 1999).

By seeking a “trophic level,” we examine the possibility that unlike 20th-century hunter-gatherers (HG), Paleolithic humans may not have been as flexible in the selection of plant or animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene as one would infer from an examination of the ethnographic record.

Perception of humans' dietary flexibility regarding plant and animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene (2,580,000–11,700 years ago) receives much support from analogy with 20th century HG's varied diets. The difference in preservation potential between plants and animals in archaeological assemblages has led to the wide use of ethnography in the reconstruction of Paleolithic diets (Cordain et al., 2000; Crittenden & Schnorr, 2017; Eaton & Konner, 1985; Konner & Eaton, 2010; Kuipers et al., 2012; Kuipers et al., 2010; Lee, 1968; F. W. Marlowe, 2005; Stahl et al., 1984; Ströhle & Hahn, 2011). All of the reconstructions present a picture of HG as flexible in their trophic level, depending largely on local ecologies. However, the varied diets of 20th century HG may result from post-Paleolithic technological and physiological adaptations to Anthropocene ecological conditions that are non-analogous to the conditions that humans experienced during most of the Pleistocene. In fact, with a markedly lower abundance of megafauna and with technological features like the use of dogs, bows and arrows, iron, and contact with neighboring herders and farmers, one would expect 20th century HG to be more analogous in terms of dietary patterns to their probable ancestors of the terminal and post-Paleolithic humans rather than to Lower, Middle and even Early Upper Paleolithic humans (Ben-Dor & Barkai, 2020a; Faith et al., 2019).

June 12 knee check test, full ATG 160lbs SQUATS
Off season {haven't squat in a few months} June 12 knee check test with full paused ATG, SSB bodyweight 160lbs squats. Wow, I attribute my great silent knees this time to backward #xpotrainer sled pulling, and
https://phys.org/news/2021-04-humans-apex-predators-million-years.html.

Here's the primary cause of my ultra functional pain free body and mind.
https://phys.org/.../2021-04-humans-apex-predators....

The evolution of the human trophic level during the Pleistocene
Miki Ben-Dor,Raphael Sirtoli,Ran Barkai
First published: 05 March 2021 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24247Citations: 3
SECTIONSPDFPDFTOOLS SHARE
Abstract
The human trophic level (HTL) during the Pleistocene and its degree of variability serve, explicitly or tacitly, as the basis of many explanations for human evolution, behavior, and culture. Previous attempts to reconstruct the HTL have relied heavily on an analogy with recent hunter-gatherer groups' diets. In addition to technological differences, recent findings of substantial ecological differences between the Pleistocene and the Anthropocene cast doubt regarding that analogy's validity. Surprisingly little systematic evolution-guided evidence served to reconstruct HTL. Here, we reconstruct the HTL during the Pleistocene by reviewing evidence for the impact of the HTL on the biological, ecological, and behavioral systems derived from various existing studies. We adapt a paleobiological and paleoecological approach, including evidence from human physiology and genetics, archaeology, paleontology, and zoology, and identified 25 sources of evidence in total. The evidence shows that the trophic level of the Homo lineage that most probably led to modern humans evolved from a low base to a high, carnivorous position during the Pleistocene, beginning with Homo habilis and peaking in Homo erectus. A reversal of that trend appears in the Upper Paleolithic, strengthening in the Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic and Neolithic, and culminating with the advent of agriculture. We conclude that it is possible to reach a credible reconstruction of the HTL without relying on a simple analogy with recent hunter-gatherers' diets. The memory of an adaptation to a trophic level that is embedded in modern humans' biology in the form of genetics, metabolism, and morphology is a fruitful line of investigation of past HTLs, whose potential we have only started to explore.

1 INTRODUCTION
“The first task of the prehistorian must be to decide which trophic level the population he is studying occupied” (Wilkinson, 2014, p. 544).

Despite Wilkinson's advice, few researchers referred to past human food consumption in terms of a “trophic level.” This tendency may stem from the perception of humans as the ultimate omnivore, generalist, flexible creatures, capable of adapting their trophic level at short notice to meet variable local ecological conditions. Some even consider acquiring these capabilities as the core of human evolution, including increased brain size (Potts, 1998; R. W. Wrangham et al., 1999).

By seeking a “trophic level,” we examine the possibility that unlike 20th-century hunter-gatherers (HG), Paleolithic humans may not have been as flexible in the selection of plant or animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene as one would infer from an examination of the ethnographic record.

Perception of humans' dietary flexibility regarding plant and animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene (2,580,000–11,700 years ago) receives much support from analogy with 20th century HG's varied diets. The difference in preservation potential between plants and animals in archaeological assemblages has led to the wide use of ethnography in the reconstruction of Paleolithic diets (Cordain et al., 2000; Crittenden & Schnorr, 2017; Eaton & Konner, 1985; Konner & Eaton, 2010; Kuipers et al., 2012; Kuipers et al., 2010; Lee, 1968; F. W. Marlowe, 2005; Stahl et al., 1984; Ströhle & Hahn, 2011). All of the reconstructions present a picture of HG as flexible in their trophic level, depending largely on local ecologies. However, the varied diets of 20th century HG may result from post-Paleolithic technological and physiological adaptations to Anthropocene ecological conditions that are non-analogous to the conditions that humans experienced during most of the Pleistocene. In fact, with a markedly lower abundance of megafauna and with technological features like the use of dogs, bows and arrows, iron, and contact with neighboring herders and farmers, one would expect 20th century HG to be more analogous in terms of dietary patterns to their probable ancestors of the terminal and post-Paleolithic humans rather than to Lower, Middle and even Early Upper Paleolithic humans (Ben-Dor & Barkai, 2020a; Faith et al., 2019).

June 12 knee check test with full ATG SSB bodyweight squat

Off season {haven't squat in a few months} June 12 knee check test with full paused ATG, SSB bodyweight 160lbs squats. Wow, I attribute my great silent knees this time to backward #xpotrainer sled pulling, and
https://phys.org/news/2021-04-humans-apex-predators-million-years.html.

Here's the primary cause of my ultra functional pain free body and mind.
https://phys.org/.../2021-04-humans-apex-predators....

The evolution of the human trophic level during the Pleistocene
Miki Ben-Dor,Raphael Sirtoli,Ran Barkai
First published: 05 March 2021 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24247Citations: 3
SECTIONSPDFPDFTOOLS SHARE
Abstract
The human trophic level (HTL) during the Pleistocene and its degree of variability serve, explicitly or tacitly, as the basis of many explanations for human evolution, behavior, and culture. Previous attempts to reconstruct the HTL have relied heavily on an analogy with recent hunter-gatherer groups' diets. In addition to technological differences, recent findings of substantial ecological differences between the Pleistocene and the Anthropocene cast doubt regarding that analogy's validity. Surprisingly little systematic evolution-guided evidence served to reconstruct HTL. Here, we reconstruct the HTL during the Pleistocene by reviewing evidence for the impact of the HTL on the biological, ecological, and behavioral systems derived from various existing studies. We adapt a paleobiological and paleoecological approach, including evidence from human physiology and genetics, archaeology, paleontology, and zoology, and identified 25 sources of evidence in total. The evidence shows that the trophic level of the Homo lineage that most probably led to modern humans evolved from a low base to a high, carnivorous position during the Pleistocene, beginning with Homo habilis and peaking in Homo erectus. A reversal of that trend appears in the Upper Paleolithic, strengthening in the Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic and Neolithic, and culminating with the advent of agriculture. We conclude that it is possible to reach a credible reconstruction of the HTL without relying on a simple analogy with recent hunter-gatherers' diets. The memory of an adaptation to a trophic level that is embedded in modern humans' biology in the form of genetics, metabolism, and morphology is a fruitful line of investigation of past HTLs, whose potential we have only started to explore.

1 INTRODUCTION
“The first task of the prehistorian must be to decide which trophic level the population he is studying occupied” (Wilkinson, 2014, p. 544).

Despite Wilkinson's advice, few researchers referred to past human food consumption in terms of a “trophic level.” This tendency may stem from the perception of humans as the ultimate omnivore, generalist, flexible creatures, capable of adapting their trophic level at short notice to meet variable local ecological conditions. Some even consider acquiring these capabilities as the core of human evolution, including increased brain size (Potts, 1998; R. W. Wrangham et al., 1999).

By seeking a “trophic level,” we examine the possibility that unlike 20th-century hunter-gatherers (HG), Paleolithic humans may not have been as flexible in the selection of plant or animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene as one would infer from an examination of the ethnographic record.

Perception of humans' dietary flexibility regarding plant and animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene (2,580,000–11,700 years ago) receives much support from analogy with 20th century HG's varied diets. The difference in preservation potential between plants and animals in archaeological assemblages has led to the wide use of ethnography in the reconstruction of Paleolithic diets (Cordain et al., 2000; Crittenden & Schnorr, 2017; Eaton & Konner, 1985; Konner & Eaton, 2010; Kuipers et al., 2012; Kuipers et al., 2010; Lee, 1968; F. W. Marlowe, 2005; Stahl et al., 1984; Ströhle & Hahn, 2011). All of the reconstructions present a picture of HG as flexible in their trophic level, depending largely on local ecologies. However, the varied diets of 20th century HG may result from post-Paleolithic technological and physiological adaptations to Anthropocene ecological conditions that are non-analogous to the conditions that humans experienced during most of the Pleistocene. In fact, with a markedly lower abundance of megafauna and with technological features like the use of dogs, bows and arrows, iron, and contact with neighboring herders and farmers, one would expect 20th century HG to be more analogous in terms of dietary patterns to their probable ancestors of the terminal and post-Paleolithic humans rather than to Lower, Middle and even Early Upper Paleolithic humans (Ben-Dor & Barkai, 2020a; Faith et al., 2019).

Stylish, NO potato sac moi, maintaining my hot functional self on push scooter.

Here's the primary cause of my ultra functional pain free body and mind.
https://phys.org/.../2021-04-humans-apex-predators....

The evolution of the human trophic level during the Pleistocene
Miki Ben-Dor,Raphael Sirtoli,Ran Barkai
First published: 05 March 2021 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24247Citations: 3
SECTIONSPDFPDFTOOLS SHARE
Abstract
The human trophic level (HTL) during the Pleistocene and its degree of variability serve, explicitly or tacitly, as the basis of many explanations for human evolution, behavior, and culture. Previous attempts to reconstruct the HTL have relied heavily on an analogy with recent hunter-gatherer groups' diets. In addition to technological differences, recent findings of substantial ecological differences between the Pleistocene and the Anthropocene cast doubt regarding that analogy's validity. Surprisingly little systematic evolution-guided evidence served to reconstruct HTL. Here, we reconstruct the HTL during the Pleistocene by reviewing evidence for the impact of the HTL on the biological, ecological, and behavioral systems derived from various existing studies. We adapt a paleobiological and paleoecological approach, including evidence from human physiology and genetics, archaeology, paleontology, and zoology, and identified 25 sources of evidence in total. The evidence shows that the trophic level of the Homo lineage that most probably led to modern humans evolved from a low base to a high, carnivorous position during the Pleistocene, beginning with Homo habilis and peaking in Homo erectus. A reversal of that trend appears in the Upper Paleolithic, strengthening in the Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic and Neolithic, and culminating with the advent of agriculture. We conclude that it is possible to reach a credible reconstruction of the HTL without relying on a simple analogy with recent hunter-gatherers' diets. The memory of an adaptation to a trophic level that is embedded in modern humans' biology in the form of genetics, metabolism, and morphology is a fruitful line of investigation of past HTLs, whose potential we have only started to explore.

1 INTRODUCTION
“The first task of the prehistorian must be to decide which trophic level the population he is studying occupied” (Wilkinson, 2014, p. 544).

Despite Wilkinson's advice, few researchers referred to past human food consumption in terms of a “trophic level.” This tendency may stem from the perception of humans as the ultimate omnivore, generalist, flexible creatures, capable of adapting their trophic level at short notice to meet variable local ecological conditions. Some even consider acquiring these capabilities as the core of human evolution, including increased brain size (Potts, 1998; R. W. Wrangham et al., 1999).

By seeking a “trophic level,” we examine the possibility that unlike 20th-century hunter-gatherers (HG), Paleolithic humans may not have been as flexible in the selection of plant or animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene as one would infer from an examination of the ethnographic record.

Perception of humans' dietary flexibility regarding plant and animal-sourced foods during the Pleistocene (2,580,000–11,700 years ago) receives much support from analogy with 20th century HG's varied diets. The difference in preservation potential between plants and animals in archaeological assemblages has led to the wide use of ethnography in the reconstruction of Paleolithic diets (Cordain et al., 2000; Crittenden & Schnorr, 2017; Eaton & Konner, 1985; Konner & Eaton, 2010; Kuipers et al., 2012; Kuipers et al., 2010; Lee, 1968; F. W. Marlowe, 2005; Stahl et al., 1984; Ströhle & Hahn, 2011). All of the reconstructions present a picture of HG as flexible in their trophic level, depending largely on local ecologies. However, the varied diets of 20th century HG may result from post-Paleolithic technological and physiological adaptations to Anthropocene ecological conditions that are non-analogous to the conditions that humans experienced during most of the Pleistocene. In fact, with a markedly lower abundance of megafauna and with technological features like the use of dogs, bows and arrows, iron, and contact with neighboring herders and farmers, one would expect 20th century HG to be more analogous in terms of dietary patterns to their probable ancestors of the terminal and post-Paleolithic humans rather than to Lower, Middle and even Early Upper Paleolithic humans (Ben-Dor & Barkai, 2020a; Faith et al., 2019).

June 6, 2022 Push Scooter Workout Highlights To Come Together Audiomachine-1

To Certain Young Men

The following I make an example in giving a clue as to what extent I can fight back against wimpy young men.
" To Certain Young Men, you finally got my fucking attention! https://odysee.com/@OptimizationCoach:a/To-Certain-Young-Men-1:f?r=9dm4LQjGnkL6ZPQLM9r19LJDbJKdajsB"

I build my correct, swell, and ultra FUNCTIONAL HOT body, long term through mostly our species specific appropriate diet.
I'm LONG immune to people's utter irrational & mystical denigration of my hot, strong, ultra capable body and mind. All just project their weaknesses on what OUGHT to be.
Last year quietly in the middle of the plandemic, the largest & most correct hard science based reconstruction of what we actually ate, dropped.
https://phys.org/.../2021-04-humans-apex-predators....
Remember, I don't believe at all in any deity, therefore it's irrational as heck religiously based diet dictums. Deal with it or LOL all you want, it's your choice.

Front View Shiny Sunny No Potato Sac Push Scooter Ride Workout Highlights

SHINY SUNNY NO UGLY POTATO SAC PUSH SCOOTER MORNING WORKOUT HIGHLIGHTS TO GAMEMASTER TURBO MUSIC! PART 1

SHINY SUNNY NO UGLY POTATO SAC PUSH SCOOTER MORNING WORKOUT HIGHLIGHTS TO GAMEMASTER TURBO MUSIC! PART 2

Morning Retro New Disco 2000 Stylish Ride To Hex Hector's Waiting For Tonight-1

I remind y'all that my page is not for neurotic, hysterical, easily triggered, faint of heart, traditional Losertive luddites.
If you're too anxious about your base libido drive and sentimentality, don't watch my content of this kind, MK?
Regular morning NO potato sac scooter ride in style, to Sander Van Dorn's Koko & Offer Nissim. https://youtu.be/bmwAlbjiJa0?t=38.

May 21, 2022 push scooter trip to Markus's Cold Harbor sessions

May 21, 2022 push scooter trip to Markus's Cold Harbor sessions.

"Dan Anschutz
Scooters are fantastic.
Rich C Haus
Dan Anschutz especially manual push ones where one has to personally move it forward.. I've never seen anyone in my area child or adult doing any long distance runs. Why? because 99% of everyone doesn't do our human species appropriate diet and therefore are weak as heck. LOL."

Online whining & complaining is directly caused by weak biological optimizations

Men seeking out acknowledgement of their feelings, to then emotionalize their feelings even more in a paralyzing circle JERK of self pity & helplessness, is a major trending issue at least here on CIA Facecrack. LOL.
This deep self pitying desire to emotionalize one’s feelings about every concrete and intangible aspects of a man’s life is sissy and weak as heck. LOL.
And then to further seek out emotional confirmation from other hurting men ad infinitum into shit hole after shit hole of total bottomless grand shit hole of a wimpy dead end poor life, is sissy and weak as heck. You can do much better. LOL.
Online whining & complaining is directly caused by weak biological optimizations & it's paralyzing psychological consequences.
Which then becomes a total psychotic feedback loop of infinite insanity.

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