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This bar chart race shows urban agglomerations in India with over one million urban population, and urbanization in percentage and total urban population, from 1950 to projected in 2035.

The Eckert IV projection is used as map depiction.

The capital of India is New Delhi. Urban agglomeration data for Delhi National Capital Region (NCR) also include metropolitan area that is not restricted to state boundaries of National Capital Territory (NCT). I.e. contiguous suburban cities and towns, such as Faridabad, Gurgaon, and Ghaziabad.

Despite a high total urban population, the urbanization in percentage is relative low compared to many other countries for several reasons:

Large Rural Population: A significant portion of India's population still resides in rural areas, relying on agriculture and related activities for their livelihood. Despite urbanization trends, the rural population remains substantial.

Historical and Economic Factors: India has a long history of being an agrarian society. Economic development and industrialization, which drive urbanization, have occurred at a slower pace compared to some other nations. Many rural areas have not seen the same level of industrial growth that typically leads to urbanization.

Infrastructure and Urban Planning: Rapid urbanization requires extensive infrastructure and urban planning. India faces challenges in developing adequate urban infrastructure to support a larger urban population, including housing, transportation, water supply, and sanitation.

Government Policies: Policies and programs aimed at rural development, such as subsidies for agriculture and rural employment schemes, have helped sustain rural populations. These policies can slow the rate of rural-to-urban migration.

Social and Cultural Factors: Many people in India have strong cultural and familial ties to their rural communities. These ties can make people less inclined to migrate to urban areas, even when economic opportunities are more plentiful there.

Urban-Rural Disparities: The disparity in living conditions and opportunities between urban and rural areas can discourage urban migration. While cities offer more economic opportunities, they also come with challenges such as high living costs, congestion, and pollution.

While space constraints are also significant factors, they are intertwined with broader economic, social, and infrastructural issues that collectively influence the pace and nature of urbanization in India.

Countries like the United States, most of Europe, and Japan have much higher urbanization rates, often exceeding 80%. This is due to earlier industrialization, economic development, and smaller rural populations. India’s urbanization rate is comparable to some other developing nations but lags behind rapidly urbanizing countries like China, which has aggressively pursued urbanization through state policies and massive infrastructure projects. India’s urbanization is an ongoing process, and while it is less than 40% currently, it is expected to increase as the country continues to develop economically and infrastructure improves.

Data sources and projections: World Bank and UN

Music: Stellardrone - Pluto https://soundcloud.com/stellardrone/pluto

Data visualization created with flourish.studio https://flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows urban agglomerations in USA with over one million urban population, and urbanization in percentage and total urban population, from 1950 to projected in 2035.

Albers USA projection is used as map depiction.

San Juan, Puerto Rico, is not included.

Many Rust Belt cities in the United States, experienced significant population fluctuations over the years. Buffalo, New York, is the only city that exceeded one million urban population and later dropping below.

Since 1950, urbanization in the USA has undergone significant transformation, marked by the rise of million cities, characterized by urban areas with populations exceeding one million people. This trend reflects the growing concentration of population and economic activity in metropolitan regions.

In 1950, the USA had only a handful of million cities, primarily centered around established hubs like New York City, Chicago, and Los Angeles. However, with the advent of suburbanization and the expansion of industries, especially in technology and finance, the number of million cities has increased steadily.

By the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the USA saw a proliferation of million cities across various regions, including the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. Cities like Houston, Philadelphia, Phoenix, and San Diego joined the ranks of million cities, driven by factors such as job opportunities, infrastructure development, and lifestyle preferences.

This urbanization trend has been fueled by several factors, including:

Economic Growth: Urban areas have been the engines of economic growth, attracting businesses, investments, and skilled labor.

Infrastructure Development: Investments in transportation, communication, and utilities have facilitated urban expansion and connectivity.

Demographic Shifts: Migration from rural to urban areas, as well as natural population growth, has contributed to the urbanization process.

Technological Advancements: Innovations in transportation, communication, and automation have made urban living more convenient and attractive.

The rise of million cities has led to both opportunities and challenges. On one hand, these urban centers offer diverse cultural amenities, educational opportunities, and access to services. On the other hand, they face issues such as traffic congestion, housing affordability, and environmental degradation.

Despite these challenges, the trend of urbanization in the USA continues, with projections suggesting further growth of million cities and the consolidation of metropolitan regions as primary drivers of economic and social development.

Data sources and projections: World Bank and UN

Music: Diamond Ace - California Dreaming https://soundcloud.com/diamond-ace-music/california-dreaming

Data visualization created with flourish.studio https://flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the Democracy Index from 2006 to 2023 by country and world, highest and lowest scores.

The Democracy Index is an annual report published by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that assesses the state of democracy in countries around the world. The index measures the performance of 167 countries based on 60 indicators across five categories: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, the functioning of government, political participation, and political culture.

Each country is assigned a score out of 10 based on their performance in these categories, with scores ranging from 0 to 10. Countries with scores between 8 and 10 are considered to be full democracies, those with scores between 6 and 8 are flawed democracies, those with scores between 4 and 6 are hybrid regimes, and those with scores below 4 are authoritarian regimes.

The Democracy Index is a useful tool for researchers, policymakers, and activists who are interested in understanding the state of democracy around the world. It provides a comprehensive overview of the strengths and weaknesses of different political systems, and it can help identify areas where improvements are needed to promote democracy and protect civil liberties.

The Democracy Index has been published each second year since 2006 and annually since 2010 , and it has become one of the most widely used measures of democracy in the world. Its findings are often cited by academics, journalists, and policymakers, and they are used to inform public debates and policy decisions.

Overall, the Democracy Index provides a valuable resource for anyone who is interested in understanding the state of democracy in different countries around the world. By providing a comprehensive and objective assessment of political systems, the index can help promote democracy and protect civil liberties, and it can help ensure that citizens around the world have a voice in their own government.

Source: Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)

Music: BCafGun - The Second Time https://soundcloud.com/bc-afgun/the-second-time

Data visualization created with flourish.studio https://flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the annual estimated number of livestock buffaloes by country and world from 1961 to 2022.

The global population of livestock buffaloes has seen notable changes since 1961. The data reveals significant trends and shifts in the distribution and growth of buffalo populations across different countries and regions. Since 1961, the global buffalo population has steadily increased. In 1961, the world had approximately 90 million buffaloes. By the 2020s, this number has more than doubled, exceeding 200 million.

The majority of the world's buffalo population is concentrated in Asia, particularly in South and Southeast Asia:
India has consistently maintained the largest buffalo population in the world. In 1961, India had about 50 million buffaloes, which has grown to over 110 million in recent years. This growth is driven by the high demand for buffalo milk and meat.
Pakistan has also seen substantial growth in its buffalo population. From around 7 million in 1961, the number has risen to over 40 million, making Pakistan the second-largest buffalo-holding country.
China has experienced significant increases as well. Starting with approximately 8 million buffaloes in 1961, the population has grown to over 25 million. This growth reflects the country's expanding dairy industry and meat consumption.
Countries like Bangladesh, Nepal, and Vietnam have also seen notable increases in their buffalo populations, though on a smaller scale compared to India and Pakistan.

Outside of Asia, buffalo populations are relatively small. Countries in Africa and South America have minor buffalo populations, used mainly for local dairy and agricultural purposes.

Buffalo milk is a crucial dairy product in many Asian countries, particularly in India and Pakistan. The increasing population correlates with the rising demand for dairy products. Buffalo meat is also a significant industry, with countries like India and Pakistan exporting large quantities of buffalo meat. In many developing regions, buffaloes are vital for agricultural activities, including plowing fields and transportation.

The data indicates a robust growth in the global buffalo population since 1961, driven mainly by the demand for dairy and meat products in South and Southeast Asia. India and Pakistan lead in buffalo population growth, while other countries in the region also contribute to the increasing numbers. This trend highlights the economic and agricultural importance of buffaloes in these regions.

Data source: FAO

Music: yoitrax - Cosmos https://yoitrax.bandcamp.com/
Cosmos by yoitrax is licensed under a Creative Commons License.

Data visualization created with flourish.studio https://flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows daily average kilocalories (kcal) per capita derived from fat consumption, by country/territory and world, from 1961 to 2021.

Data are based on supply to households and individuals. Please note that data of supply to a household and to and individual does not take food waste on consumer level into account. So, the actual average consumption is lower than supply. Waste amount also vary between different countries.

Data source: FAO

Music: BörbelTSCHÄGged - Nachtgedudel https://boerbeltschaegged.bandcamp.com/track/nachtgedudel

Data visualization created with flourish.studio https://flourish.studio

This video shows cities in Africa with over one million urban population, and Africa's urbanization in percentage and total urban population, from 1950 to projected in 2035. Countries and their flags are shown as they exist today.

The urbanization trend in Africa has witnessed significant growth since 1950, leading to the emergence of numerous cities with populations exceeding one million.

Many African cities experienced rapid population growth since 1950 due to factors such as rural-urban migration, natural population increase, and economic development. This growth has led to the expansion and densification of urban areas.

Over the decades, several megacities (cities with populations exceeding 10 million) have emerged in Africa, including Lagos (Nigeria), Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo), Cairo (Egypt), and Johannesburg (South Africa). These megacities serve as economic, cultural, and administrative hubs, attracting migrants from both within the country and abroad.

While some regions of Africa have seen rapid urbanization and the emergence of multiple large cities, others have lagged behind in urban development. Countries in North Africa, such as Egypt and Algeria, have relatively higher urbanization rates compared to those in Sub-Saharan Africa, where urbanization has been slower but steadily increasing.

The rapid urbanization of African cities has often outpaced the development of infrastructure, leading to challenges such as inadequate housing, limited access to clean water and sanitation, congestion, and inadequate transportation systems. Informal settlements, characterized by makeshift housing and limited access to basic services, are prevalent in many African cities.

African cities with large populations play crucial roles in their countries' economies, serving as centers for trade, finance, manufacturing, and services. They attract investments, skilled labor, and entrepreneurial activities, contributing significantly to national and regional economic growth.

Despite the challenges, many African governments and municipalities have embarked on urban planning initiatives to manage urban growth effectively, improve infrastructure, and enhance livability. However, implementation often faces constraints such as limited financial resources, institutional capacity, and governance issues.

Urbanization in Africa is expected to continue in the coming decades, driven by factors such as population growth, rural-urban migration, and economic development. This trend will necessitate concerted efforts to address infrastructure deficits, promote sustainable urban development, and enhance the quality of life for urban residents.

Overall, the urbanization of African cities with populations exceeding one million since 1950 reflects the continent's dynamic demographic, economic, and social transformations, presenting both opportunities and challenges for policymakers, urban planners, and residents alike.

Data sources and projections: World Bank and UN

Music: Blue Crystal Star - Eternity https://soundcloud.com/crystalblue64/serinity

Data visualization created with flourish.studio https://flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the top aesthetic/cosmetic surgical and non-surgical procedures performed by certified plastic surgeons, annually from 2013 to 2022, accumulated, distribution by sexes, and surgeons by country. The numbers are estimates based on surveys, covering the vast majority of the industry.

Please note that numbers of procedures are not always the same as number of persons. Some persons can have several different or repeated procedures. However, the final result of procedures that require a longer time, steps etc. are counted as one procedure.

Data source: The International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ISAPS)

Music: HURACCANE - ONLY ONE (ft. EndlessDrxin) https://soundcloud.com/huraccane/only-one

Data visualization created with Flourish https://flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the annual copper mining production by country and world from 1970 to 2022, measured in metric tonnes.

Copper mining production has undergone significant changes since 1970, with shifts in global demand, technological advancements, and geopolitical factors influencing production levels across various countries.

Overall Growth: Since 1970, global copper mining production has seen steady growth, driven primarily by increasing industrialization, urbanization, and infrastructure development worldwide. The demand for copper, a crucial metal in industries such as construction, electronics, and transportation, has fueled this growth.

Top Producing Countries: Historically, Chile has been the largest producer of copper globally, boasting abundant copper reserves and favorable mining conditions. Other major producers include Peru, China, the United States, and Australia. These countries have extensive copper deposits and well-established mining industries.

Technological Advances: Advances in mining technology, such as automated machinery, improved extraction methods, and environmental regulations, have contributed to increased efficiency and productivity in copper mining operations. This has allowed producers to extract copper from deeper and more complex ore deposits, maintaining or even boosting production levels.

Geopolitical Factors: Geopolitical dynamics, including government policies, regulatory frameworks, and trade agreements, have also influenced copper production by country. Changes in taxation, environmental regulations, or labor laws can impact the profitability and competitiveness of copper mining operations, leading to fluctuations in production levels.

Environmental Concerns: In recent decades, there has been growing awareness of the environmental impact of copper mining, particularly regarding water and air pollution, habitat destruction, and greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, there has been increased pressure on mining companies to adopt sustainable practices and invest in eco-friendly technologies to mitigate these impacts.

Market Dynamics: Fluctuations in copper prices, influenced by factors such as supply and demand dynamics, economic conditions, and geopolitical tensions, can affect investment decisions and production levels in copper mining countries. Periods of high prices may incentivize increased production and exploration activities, while downturns may lead to cutbacks and closures of less profitable mines.

In summary, copper mining production by country and globally has experienced steady growth since 1970, driven by factors such as increasing demand, technological advancements, geopolitical considerations, environmental concerns, and market dynamics. While certain countries dominate global production, the industry continues to evolve in response to changing economic, social, and environmental conditions.

Data source: Data source: British Geological Survey (BSG), Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

Music: Jonathan Rich - Hope On The Horizon
is under a Creative Commons license (CC BY 3.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/
https://soundcloud.com/jonathan-rich/hope-on-the-horizon-orchestral-theme

Data visualization created with Flourish https://flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the total annual (shelled) almond production quantity by country and world from 1961 to 2022, measured in metric tonnes.

Almond production has seen significant growth and diversification since 1961. The United States has been a dominant player, particularly in California, where the climate is conducive to almond cultivation. Over the years, technological advancements and efficient farming practices have propelled the U.S. to become the world's largest producer of almonds.

However, other countries have also entered the market and expanded their almond production. Spain, for instance, has emerged as a major almond producer in Europe, leveraging its Mediterranean climate. Australia has also significantly increased its almond production, capitalizing on its vast arable land and favorable growing conditions.

On a global scale, almond production has surged, driven by increasing demand for almonds due to their nutritional value and versatility. China and India have become major importers of almonds, contributing to the growth of the global almond market.

Despite challenges such as water scarcity and environmental concerns associated with almond farming, the industry continues to thrive, with ongoing research and innovation aimed at sustainability and efficiency. Overall, almond production has undergone remarkable transformation and expansion since 1961, with the U.S. remaining a key player alongside emerging producers like Spain and Australia.

Data source: FAO

Music: Imperss Music - One Day https://imperss.bandcamp.com/track/one-day

Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the busiest container ports in the world, by twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), from 2004 to 2022.

1 TEU = A 20-foot equivalent unit or a 20-foot-long cargo container.

While the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach are adjacent to each other and form a larger unified complex known as the San Pedro Bay Port Complex, they are administratively separate entities with distinct operations and governance structures. Therefore, they are separated here to understand each port's individual performance.

Since 2004, the busiest container ports in the world in terms of TEUs have seen significant shifts and expansions. Ports in East Asia, particularly China, have dominated the rankings, with Shanghai consistently holding the top spot in China since 2004. Other major players include ports in Singapore, Shenzhen, and Ningbo-Zhoushan. These ports have continuously expanded their infrastructure and adopted advanced technologies to handle the increasing volume of global trade. Additionally, ports in Europe and North America have also maintained their positions in the top rankings, albeit with varying degrees of growth. Overall, the landscape of the busiest container ports has evolved over the years, reflecting changes in global trade patterns and economic dynamics.

Data source: World Shipping Council and various individual port data portals.

Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows cities in Iran with over one million urban population, and Iran's urbanization in percentage and total urban population, from 1951 to projected in 2035.

Since 1951, Iran has undergone significant urbanization, marked by the emergence of million cities – urban centers with populations exceeding one million residents. This trend has been largely fueled by rural-to-urban migration, spurred by factors such as industrialization, modernization, and economic opportunities in urban areas. Tehran, the capital city, stands as the largest and most prominent million city in Iran, experiencing rapid population growth and urban sprawl over the decades. Other major million cities include Mashhad, Isfahan, and Tabriz, each contributing to Iran's urban landscape and socioeconomic development. Urbanization in Iran has brought about both opportunities and challenges, including infrastructure strains, socioeconomic disparities, and environmental concerns.

Data sources and projections: World Bank and UN

Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the annual percentage of children born outside marriage in OECD countries from 1960 to 2020, highest and lowest.

Countries are shown from when and to data is available, and as they exist today (USSR and Yugoslav republics, Czechoslovakia).
Colombia, which became member in 2020, is excluded.
Data from Japan is interpolated in 5 year intervals until 2001.

The share of children born outside marriage in OECD countries has seen a significant increase from 1960 to 2020. In the mid-20th century, the proportion of children born outside marriage was relatively low across OECD nations. However, societal shifts, including changes in attitudes towards marriage and family structures, have led to a steady rise in non-marital births over the decades. Factors such as increased acceptance of cohabitation, higher rates of divorce, and changing cultural norms have contributed to this trend. By 2020, a substantial portion of children in OECD countries were being born to unmarried parents, reflecting the evolving dynamics of family life in the modern era.

Data source: OECD

Music: Sarah Jansen - Love Trip https://soundcloud.com/sarahjansenmusic/lovetrip

Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the estimated annual beer production by country and world from 1961 to 2021, measured in liters.

Since 1961, beer production has seen significant growth globally, with various countries emerging as key players in the industry. The United States, China, and Germany consistently rank among the top beer-producing nations.

United States: The United States has witnessed a considerable expansion in its beer production since 1961, driven by the proliferation of craft breweries alongside established giants like Anheuser-Busch and MillerCoors.

China: China has experienced rapid economic growth since the 1980s, leading to a surge in beer consumption and production. Domestic brands such as Tsingtao and Snow dominate the market, with international breweries also making inroads.

Germany: Known for its rich brewing tradition, Germany remains a powerhouse in beer production. While traditional breweries continue to thrive, there's also been a rise in craft beer culture, adding diversity to the market.

Other notable beer-producing countries include Mexico, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Mexico's beer industry has flourished with brands like Corona gaining global popularity, while Brazil boasts a vibrant beer culture centered around traditional styles like lager and pilsner.

Overall, global beer production has increased steadily since 1961, reflecting changing consumer preferences, economic growth, and cultural influences. While traditional beer-drinking nations maintain their prominence, emerging markets and the craft beer movement contribute to a dynamic and evolving industry landscape.

Data source: FAO

Music:
BenGSynth - Miami 1984 - Accelerated (BenGSynth Remake V2)
https://soundcloud.com/bengsynth/bengsynth-remake-v2-miami-1984-accelerate
Miami 1984 - Accelerated (BenGSynth Remake V2) By BenGSynth is licensed under a Creative Commons License.

Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This video shows most peaceful countries, Global Peace Index (GPI), from 2008 to 2023. The scale is inverted to 1-5, where 5 is the most peaceful.

Limitations: About 160+ countries are indexed. Micro countries such as the Vatican, Lichtenstein, Andorra etc., small island countries in the Caribbean and the Pacific, are not indexed.

GPI is a comprehensive measure that ranks countries around the world based on their levels of peace and stability. To assess a nation's peacefulness, it considers various factors such as:

Number and duration of internal conflicts.
Number of deaths from external organized conflict.
Number of deaths from internal organized conflict.
Number, duration, and role in external conflicts.
Intensity of organized internal conflict.
Relations with neighbouring countries.
Level of perceived criminality in society.
Number of refugees and displaced persons as percentage of population.
Political instability.
Impact of terrorism.
Political terror.
Number of homicides per 100,000 people.
Level of violent crime.
Likelihood of violent demonstrations.
Number of jailed persons per 100,000 people.
Number of internal security officers and police per 100,000 people.
Military expenditure as a percentage of GDP.
Number of armed-services personnel per 100,000.
Volume of transfers of major conventional weapons as recipient (imports) per 100,000 people.
Volume of transfers of major conventional weapons as supplier (exports) per 100,000 people.
Financial contribution to UN peacekeeping missions.
Nuclear and heavy weapons capability.
Ease of access to small arms and light weapons.

Developed by the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP), the GPI provides valuable insights into global peace trends and helps policymakers, researchers, and the general public understand the dynamics of peace and conflict on a global scale.

Music:
Light Mister - Evolution (The Venus Project)
https://soundcloud.com/light-mister/evolution-the-venus-project
Evolution (The Venus Project) by Light Mister is licensed under a Creative Commons License.

Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the annual under 5 year old (0-4) population by country, world regions and world from 1950 and projected until 2100.

Projections are based on median fertility scenario.

Countries and flags are shown as they exist today.

Since 1950, the population of under 5-year-olds worldwide has experienced significant fluctuations. Initially, there was rapid growth due to post-war baby booms, especially in developed nations. However, this trend shifted as fertility rates declined in the latter half of the 20th century, leading to slower growth rates and even declines in some regions. The 21st century brought further changes, with developing countries witnessing a surge in under 5 populations due to sustained high fertility rates, while developed nations continued to experience stagnation or decline.

Projections until 2100 indicate a continuing divergence between developed and developing regions. In developed countries, fertility rates are expected to remain below replacement levels, resulting in a declining under 5 population. Conversely, in many developing nations, high fertility rates will drive substantial growth in this age group. Africa, in particular, is forecasted to experience a significant increase, and its under 5 population may under a higher fertility scenario surpass all other continents combined.

Factors such as improvements in healthcare, education, and economic development will influence these projections. Additionally, interventions aimed at promoting family planning and women's empowerment may alter fertility patterns, potentially impacting future under 5 populations. Understanding these demographic shifts is crucial for policymakers to plan for healthcare, education, and social services to meet the needs of the youngest members of society in the coming decades.

Data source: UN, World Population Prospects

Music:
Follow Your Dreams - Imperss (Original Mix)
soundcloud: https://soundcloud.com/imperss​
facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ImperssMusic​
instagram: https://www.instagram.com/aleksa_acky/
spotify: https://open.spotify.com/artist/6d4gMlQKx16vqUna0ORIGv
beatport: https://www.beatport.com/artist/imperss/830960

Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the largest official LEGO sets by parts, total accumulated sets and parts, from 1949 to 2023.

Only sets assigned with one or more building parts are included in accumulated sets here (some are assigned with "zero" parts).

LEGO sets have evolved significantly since their inception in 1949, when the first interlocking brick system was introduced. Originally, sets contained a limited number of building parts, primarily basic bricks and plates. However, over the decades, LEGO has continuously expanded its range of building elements, introducing various specialized pieces, minifigures, and themed sets.

Throughout the years, LEGO has embraced innovation in design and manufacturing, allowing for a wider variety of shapes, sizes, and functionalities in building parts. This evolution has led to increasingly intricate and detailed sets, catering to diverse interests and age groups.

In recent years, LEGO sets have seen a surge in complexity and realism, with sets featuring intricate architecture, mechanical functions, and advanced building techniques. The introduction of licensed themes like Star Wars, Harry Potter, and Marvel has further enriched the LEGO experience, incorporating beloved characters and storylines into the building process.

Overall, LEGO sets have evolved from simple building blocks to sophisticated kits with a vast array of building parts, offering endless possibilities for creativity and imagination.

Source and credits: LEGO, Rebrickable.com

Music: Vyra - Disco Metropolis https://soundcloud.com/vyramusic/disco-metropolis

Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows cities in Mexico with over one million urban population, and Mexico's urbanization in percentage and total urban population, from 1950 to projected in 2035.

Between 1950 and the projected year of 2035, Mexico has experienced remarkable urbanization, fundamentally altering its urban landscape and demographic composition. In 1950, approximately over 40% of Mexico's population resided in urban areas. This figure steadily climbed over the decades due to factors such as industrialization, rural-to-urban migration, and government policies fostering urban growth.

By the turn of the 21st century, Mexico had witnessed a substantial increase in its urban population, with cities like Mexico City, Guadalajara, and Monterrey emerging as bustling centers of economic activity and cultural diversity. Urbanization trends persisted, driven by globalization, economic expansion, and the allure of urban opportunities.

As of the latest projections, Mexico's urban population is expected to continue its upward trajectory, reaching significant proportions by 2035. This sustained urban growth poses both opportunities and challenges. While cities serve as engines of economic development and innovation, they also face pressing issues such as infrastructure strain, housing shortages, and environmental degradation.

Efforts to address these challenges have been underway, with investments in urban planning, transportation networks, and sustainable development initiatives. However, ensuring equitable access to resources and opportunities for all urban residents remains a critical goal.

In summary, Mexico's urbanization journey from 1950 to 2035 underscores the nation's transformation into an increasingly urbanized society. The statistics reflect not only the scale of urban growth but also the complexities and opportunities inherent in managing and shaping the future of its cities.

Data sources and projections: World Bank and UN

Music: Raccoon Path - Changes (feat. Rycon) https://soundcloud.com/raccoon-path/changes

Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows visually confirmed russian and ukrainian military vehicle and equipment losses during the 2 years of invasion of Ukraine 2022-2024.

Only vehicles and equipments with photo or videographic evidence are included. The real numbers are higher.

Numbers are shown at approximately days confirmed and interpolated. Some numbers are counted backwards and then forward because of corrections.

Credits: Stijn Mitzer, Joost Oliemans Kemal, Dan and Jakub Janovsky at Oryx (oryxspioenkop.com)

Music:
Daniele Garuglieri - War Thunder
Soundcloud: https://soundcloud.com/d4ni3l3
Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC8XFrOYJnO6hk92WBLcxMKw
Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/DanieleCinematicEpicMusic
Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows annual silver production from mining by country and world, from 1970 to 2021, measured in kilograms.

Silver is a naturally occurring element, typically found in combination with other elements or in minerals such as argentite (silver sulfide), chlorargyrite (silver chloride), and native silver. As a mineral, silver is mined from the earth's crust and has various industrial, commercial, and ornamental uses.

Since 1970, silver production from mining has experienced fluctuations influenced by various factors including technological advancements, economic conditions, and shifts in demand. Overall, key producing countries have evolved, with some emerging as dominant players in the global silver market.

United States: Historically a significant silver producer, the US saw limitations in increased production from the 1970s onwards due to depletion of reserves and environmental regulations. However, it still maintains a notable presence in global silver production.

Mexico: Consistently one of the world's largest silver producers, Mexico has played a crucial role in meeting global demand. Its rich deposits and favorable mining policies have contributed to sustained production levels.

Peru: Another major player in the global silver market, Peru has experienced fluctuating production levels due to factors such as political instability, regulatory changes, and environmental concerns. However, it remains a significant contributor to global silver supply.

China: With its rapidly expanding economy and increasing industrialization, China has emerged as a key player in silver production. The country's mining industry has expanded significantly since the late 20th century, contributing to the global supply.

Chile: While primarily known for its copper production, Chile also produces a notable amount of silver as a byproduct of copper mining. Its mining industry has undergone modernization and expansion, leading to increased silver output.

Russia: Silver production in Russia has varied over the decades, influenced by economic factors and changes in mining policies. Despite fluctuations, Russia remains a significant producer, leveraging its vast mineral reserves.

Other countries: Several other nations, including Australia, Canada, Bolivia, and Argentina, also contribute to global silver production. Their roles may vary over time depending on factors like market conditions, regulatory environments, and technological advancements.

Overall, since 1970, global silver production has seen ups and downs, reflecting the dynamic nature of the mining industry. While traditional players like the United States and Mexico continue to play crucial roles, emerging economies like China have become increasingly influential. Additionally, advancements in mining technology and techniques have facilitated access to previously untapped reserves, shaping the geographical distribution of silver production.

Data source: British Geological Survey (BSG),

This bar chart race shows the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (alcoholism) by country/territory, world and age group from 1990 to 2019.

Alcohol dependence is defined by the International Classification of Diseases as the presence of three or more indicators of dependence for at least a month within the previous year.

Countries and their flags are shown as they exist today.

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease study.

Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the number of passenger transport airplane accidents and incidents by location, type of airplane and operators, and fatalities, from year 1919 to the end of year 2023, as registered by Flight Safety Foundation's Aviation Safety Network (ASN).

Passenger transport airplanes are airliners originally certified to carry 12 or more passengers, military transport aircrafts, and corporate jet aircrafts.

Locations are the places occurrenses took place, and such not the country of origin. Countries and their flags are shown as they exist today.

Fatalities includes fatalities on the ground.

Some few occurenses categorized as unknown locations or unknown dates are not part of this video.

Source: ASN

Music: Blue Crystal Star - All of Us https://soundcloud.com/crystalblue64/all-of-us

Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race show the share of private wealth owned by the richest 1% of the population in country and the world, from 1995 to 2021.

Wealth is defined as the total value of non-financial and financial assets (housing, land, deposits, bonds, equities, etc.) held by households, minus their debts.

Data source: World Inequality Database

Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the total reported export from fisheries and aquaculture by country/territory and world from 1976 to 2021, measured in total value of US Dollars.

Global seafood exports play a vital role in international trade, contributing significantly to the economies of many countries. The seafood export industry encompasses products from both capture fisheries and aquaculture. Key players in the global seafood export market include China, Norway, Vietnam, Thailand, and the United States.

China has consistently been a major exporter, with a diverse range of seafood products, including fish, shellfish, and processed items. Norway is renowned for its high-quality seafood, particularly salmon. Other countries like Vietnam and Thailand are major players in the shrimp and prawn export market. The United States is a significant exporter of various seafood products, including lobster and certain types of fish.

Total global seafood exports have experienced growth over the years, driven by increasing demand for seafood products, globalization of the seafood supply chain, and advances in aquaculture technologies. However, challenges such as overfishing, environmental concerns, and regulatory issues have also impacted the industry.

In recent years, sustainable practices in both capture fisheries and aquaculture have gained importance. Certification programs like the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) for wild-caught seafood and the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) for farmed seafood aim to promote environmentally responsible and socially acceptable practices.

Some of the most important export products from this sector include:

Fish Fillets and Frozen Fish: Filleted and frozen fish, including popular varieties like cod, salmon, and tuna, are staple exports in the seafood industry.

Shrimp and Prawns: Shrimp and prawn exports, especially from countries like India, Thailand, and Ecuador, constitute a significant portion of the global seafood trade.

Salmon: Norway and other countries are major exporters of salmon, which is highly sought after for its quality and versatility.

Lobsters and Crabs: Lobster exports, notably from countries like Canada and the United States, are prized for their premium quality. Crab exports, including species like king crab and snow crab, also contribute significantly.

Canned Tuna: Canned tuna is a widely exported product, with countries like Thailand and the Philippines playing key roles in meeting global demand.

Squid and Octopus: Squid and octopus exports, often sourced from regions like Asia and Latin America, cater to both domestic and international markets.

Scallops and Mussels: Scallops and mussels, farmed or harvested from the wild, are important exports, with countries like China and Japan contributing significantly.

Fishmeal and Fish Oil: Derived from processing fish, fishmeal and fish oil are crucial exports used in aquaculture feeds and various industries.

Processed Seafood Products: Value-added products such as fish sticks, surimi, and smoked fish are exported globally, meeting diverse consumer preferences.

Aquaculture Products: Farmed species, including tilapia, catfish, and pangasius, contribute substantially to global seafood exports, supporting the growth of aquaculture industries.

Data source: FAO
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This bar chart shows the top 50 countries by renewable internal freshwater resources measured in total cubic meters, and world's total accumulated measured in liters and gallons.

Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to the natural occuring fresh water from internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall in the country, and is estimated and calculated as surface water plus groundwater minus the overlap between surface water and groundwater.

Source: AQUASTAT, FAO.
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This bar chart race shows human fatalities as a direct result of venomous and non-venomous animal contact, by country and world, accumutaled, annually deaths and rate per 100,000, from 1990 to 2019. Deaths from diseases from animal contact, such as malaria and rabies, are excluded (check out other videos).

Human fatalities resulting from contact with venomous and non-venomous animals vary in frequency and severity. Venomous animals, such as snakes, spiders, and certain marine creatures, pose a significant threat. Snakebites, in particular, contribute to a substantial number of fatalities globally, with estimates suggesting tens of thousands of deaths annually. Africa, Southeast Asia, and South Asia are regions where snakebite-related fatalities are more prevalent due to the abundance of venomous species.

In contrast, non-venomous animal encounters typically result in fewer fatalities, but certain species can still pose risks. Large mammals, like elephants or hippos, may cause fatalities through direct attacks, especially in regions where human-wildlife conflicts are common. Insects like bees and wasps, though not typically lethal on an individual basis, can cause fatal allergic reactions in some cases.

Marine animals, both venomous and non-venomous, contribute to fatalities through encounters such as shark attacks, jellyfish stings, and encounters with other hazardous species. While such incidents are relatively rare, they capture public attention due to their dramatic nature.

Effective prevention and management strategies are crucial to mitigate the risks associated with both venomous and non-venomous animals. Education on snakebite first aid, the use of antivenom, and appropriate medical intervention can significantly reduce snakebite-related fatalities. In areas prone to human-wildlife conflicts, implementing measures like secure fencing, early warning systems, and community education can help minimize fatal encounters with large mammals.

Understanding the biology and behavior of animals, coupled with responsible tourism practices, can contribute to safer interactions between humans and non-venomous wildlife. Additionally, advancements in medical research and technology play a vital role in developing antivenom and improving treatment options for bites and stings.

While human fatalities resulting from venomous and non-venomous animal contact are concerning, it's important to note that such incidents represent a relative small fraction of overall mortality. Nonetheless, ongoing efforts in education, research, and conservation are essential for fostering coexistence and minimizing the risks associated with human-animal interactions.

Source: IHME

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